Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States or U.S. GAAP. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented have been included and are normal and recurring in nature. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year’s presentation. Such reclassifications had no net effect on previously reported financial results.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. For the Company, these estimates include, but are not limited to revenue recognition, deferred revenue and the deferral of associated costs, valuation of acquired intangible assets and goodwill, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, realizability of deferred tax assets, valuation of common stock warrants, contingencies, accrued warranty expense, going concern, reserve for excess and obsolete inventory, and the valuation of options. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated from their respective functional currencies into U.S. dollars at the rates in effect at the balance sheet date and revenue and expense amounts are translated at average rates during the period, with resulting foreign currency translation adjustments recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) as a component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses from the re-measurement of balances denominated in currencies other than the entity's functional currency, are recorded in other expense, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The change in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) presented on the consolidated balance sheets for the year ended December 31, 2018, is reflected in the table below net of tax:
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents in highly liquid instruments with, and in the custody of, financial institutions with high credit ratings. The Company did not have any cash equivalents or investments in money market funds as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and accounts receivable. The Company maintains our cash accounts in excess of federally insured limits. However, the Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which these deposits are held. The Company extends credit to customers in the normal course of business and performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable exist to the full extent of amounts presented in the consolidated financial statements. The Company does not require collateral from its customers to secure accounts receivable.
Accounts receivable are derived from the sale of products shipped and services performed for customers primarily located in the U.S., Europe and Asia. Invoices are aged based on contractual terms with the customer. The Company reviews accounts receivable for collectibility and provides an allowance for potential credit losses. The Company has not experienced material losses related to accounts receivable during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Many of the sales contracts with customers outside of the U.S. are settled in a foreign currency other than the U.S. dollar. The Company does not enter into any foreign currency hedging agreements and is susceptible to gains and losses from foreign currency fluctuations. To date, the Company has not experienced significant gains or losses upon settling foreign contracts.
At December 31, 2018, the Company had one customer with an accounts receivable balance totaling 10% or more of the Company’s total accounts receivable (19%) compared with one customer at December 31, 2017 (10%).
The Company had no customers with sales of 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Materials from vendors are received and recorded as raw material. Once the raw materials are incorporated in the fabrication of the product, the related value of the component is recorded as work in progress or WIP. Direct and indirect labor and applicable overhead costs are also allocated and recorded to WIP inventory. Finished goods are comprised of completed products that are ready for customer shipment. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of inventory on hand for potential excess amounts over sales and forecasted demand. Excess and obsolete inventories identified, if any, are recorded as an inventory impairment charge to the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Our estimate of write downs for excess and obsolete inventory is based on a detailed analysis of on-hand inventory and purchase commitments in excess of forecasted demand. Subsequent disposals of inventories are recorded as a reduction of an inventory reserve.
Inventories consisted of the following:
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally ranging from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the related term of the lease. The costs of repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred, while expenditures for refurbishments and improvements that significantly add to the productive capacity or extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable from the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the Company’s use or eventual disposition. If estimates of future undiscounted net cash flows are insufficient to recover the carrying value of the assets, the Company will record an impairment loss in the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value. If the assets are determined to be recoverable, but the useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the Company will depreciate or amortize the net book value of the assets over the newly determined remaining useful lives. None of the Company’s property and equipment or intangible assets were impaired as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. No impairment loss has been recognized in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
The Company records goodwill when the purchase price of an acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net tangible and identified intangible assets acquired. We perform an annual impairment assessment in the fourth quarter of each year, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist, which includes evaluating qualitative and quantitative factors to assess the likelihood of an impairment of goodwill. We perform impairment tests using a fair value approach when necessary. None of the Company’s goodwill was impaired as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. No impairment loss has been recognized in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
We generally account for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that we may need to settle the warrants in cash.
For warrants where there is a possibility that we may have to settle the warrants in cash, we estimate the fair value of the issued warrants as a liability at each reporting date and record changes in the estimated fair value as a non-cash gain or loss in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair values of these warrants have been determined using the Binomial Lattice model, or Lattice, and the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model. The Lattice model provides for assumptions regarding volatility, call and put features and risk-free interest rates within the total period to maturity. The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs, such as the expected term of the warrants, expected volatility and risk-free interest rate. These values are subject to a significant degree of judgment on our part. The Company’s common stock price represents a significant input that affects the valuation of the warrants.
We account for business combinations under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification or ASC, 805, Business Combinations, where the total purchase price is allocated to the tangible and identified intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The purchase price is allocated using the information currently available, and may be adjusted, up to one-year from the acquisition date, after obtaining more information regarding, among other things, asset valuations, liabilities assumed and revisions to preliminary estimates.
Contingent consideration, if any, is recorded at the acquisition date based upon the estimated fair value of the contingent payments. The fair value of the contingent consideration is re-measured each reporting period with any adjustments in fair value being recognized in loss from operations.
The purchase price in excess of the fair value of the tangible and identified intangible assets acquired less liabilities assumed is recognized as goodwill.
We assess our ability to continue as a going concern at every interim and annual period in accordance with ASC 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements – Going Concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations.
The Company’s medical device segment revenue is primarily generated through the sale and rental of the Ekso GT and associated software (SmartAssist and VariableAssist), and sale of accessories, and support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care). Revenue from medical device product sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility for sales of the Ekso GT, software, and accessories. Ekso Care support and maintenance contracts extend coverage beyond the Company’s standard warranty agreements. The separately priced Ekso Care contracts range from 12 to 48 months. The Company receives payment at the inception of the contract and recognize revenue over the term of the agreement. Revenue from medical device leases is recognized over the lease term, typically over 12 months.
The Company’s industrial device segment revenue is generated by the sales of the upper body exoskeleton (EksoVest) and the support arm (EksoZeroG). Revenue from industrial device sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility.
Research and Development
Research and development costs consist of costs incurred for internal research and development activities. These costs primarily include salaries and other personnel-related expenses, contractor fees, legal fees associated with developing and maintaining intellectual property, facility costs, supplies, and depreciation of equipment associated with the design and development of new products prior to the establishment of their technological feasibility. Such costs are expensed as incurred.
Advertising costs are recorded in sales and marketing expense as incurred. Advertising expense was $123 and $160 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, income tax expense or benefit is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and for deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company's consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The Company accounts for any income tax contingencies in accordance with accounting guidance for income taxes. The measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on provisions of currently enacted tax laws. The effects of any future changes in tax laws or rates have not been considered.
For the preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements included herein, the Company estimates its income taxes and tax contingencies in each of the tax jurisdictions in which it operates prior to the completion and filing of its tax returns. This process involves estimating actual current tax expense together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items, such as deferred revenue, for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in net deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company must then assess the likelihood that the deferred tax assets will be realizable, and to the extent they believe that realizability is not likely, the Company must establish a valuation allowance. In assessing the need for any additional valuation allowance, the Company considers all the evidence available to it, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, legislative developments, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.
The Company measures stock-based compensation expense for certain stock-based awards made to employees and directors based on the estimated fair value of the award on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and recognizes the fair value on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards.
The Company’s determination of the fair value of stock options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors. The Company adopted the simplified method of estimating the expected term pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 14. On this basis, the Company estimated the expected term of options granted by taking the average of the vesting term and the contractual term of the option.
The Company has, from time to time, modified the terms of its stock options to employees. The Company accounts for the incremental increase in the fair value over the original award on the date of the modification as an expense for vested awards or over the remaining service (vesting) period for unvested awards. The incremental compensation cost is the excess of the fair value of the modified award on the date of modification over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02-Leases (ASC 842) and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2017-13, ASU 2018-10 and ASU 2018-11 (collectively, Topic 842) to supersede existing guidance on accounting for leases in ASC 840, Leases (ASC 840). Topic 842 requires the Company to recognize on its balance sheet a lease liability representing the present value of future lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the lessee's right to use, or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term for any operating lease with a term greater than one year. This standard is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. This standard is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2019. We intend to use the modified retrospective approach, under which the Company applies the standard to each lease that had commenced as of the beginning of the reporting period in which the Company first applies the new lease standard. In addition, the Company will elect to apply the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which among other things, allows the Company to carry forward the historical lease classification.
The adoption of this standard will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets, with the recognition of right of use assets and corresponding lease liabilities. As further described in Note 16, Commitments and Contingencies, the Company had minimum lease commitments under non-cancellable operating leases totaling $1.9 million as of December 31, 2018. The adoption of this standard will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations or cash flows, nor will it have a material impact on the financial covenants set forth in the Company's long-term debt agreement.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 eliminated the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities are required to record an impairment charge based on the excess of the carrying amount over its fair value. This update will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the impact of adopting ASU 2017-04 to be material on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The standard modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820 by removing the requirement to disclose the reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy and the policy for timing of such transfers. The standard expands the disclosure requirements for Level 3 fair value measurement, primarily focused on changes in unrealized gains and losses included in other comprehensive income. The amendments in this Update will be effective for all the Company in the first quarter of 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of the amendments in this update will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in 2018
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The updated standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP. The new standard introduces a five-step process to be followed in determining the amount and timing of revenue recognition. It also provides guidance on accounting for costs incurred to obtain or fulfill contracts with customers, and establishes disclosure requirements which are more extensive than those required under prior U.S. GAAP. The FASB has issued numerous amendments to ASU 2014-09 from August 2015 through January 2018, which provide supplemental and clarifying guidance, as well as amend the effective date of the new standard. ASU 2014-09, as amended, is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2018. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or modified retrospective (cumulative effect) transition method. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the new standard using the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption did not result in a cumulative adjustment to the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018, nor did it materially impact the aggregate amount and timing of the Company’s revenue recognition subsequent to adoption. The Company has provided enhanced revenue recognition disclosures as required by the new standard (Refer to Note 6, Revenue Recognition).
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef