Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
Basis of Presentation
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a consistent basis with the audited consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which included an explanatory paragraph expressing substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern in the report of the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, and include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the information set forth herein. Certain reclassifications have been made to conform to the current period’s presentation. The Company’s investment in a variable interest entity (“VIE”) in which it exercises significant influence but does not control and is not the primary beneficiary is accounted for using the equity method. The condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and therefore, omit certain information and footnote disclosure necessary to present the financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed with the SEC on February 28, 2019. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the entire fiscal year or any future periods.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. For the Company, these estimates include, but are not limited to: revenue recognition, deferred revenue and the deferral of the associated costs, future warranty costs, accounting for leases, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, valuation of inventory, realizability of deferred tax assets, the valuation of employee stock options and warrants, and contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Foreign Currency

The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries and equity investments, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated from their respective functional currencies into U.S. dollars at the rates in effect at the balance sheet date and revenue and expense amounts are translated at average rates during the period, with resulting foreign currency translation adjustments recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) as a component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses from the re-measurement of balances denominated in currencies other than the entity's functional currency, are recorded in other expense, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Investment in Unconsolidated Affiliate

Equity investments in which the Company exercises significant influence, but does not control and is not the primary beneficiary, are accounted for using the equity method. Investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting are recorded at cost within other assets on the consolidated balance sheets and subsequently increased or decreased by the Company's proportionate share of the net income or loss of the investee. The Company records its proportionate share of net income or loss of the investee in net investment income. The Company records its proportionate share of other comprehensive income or loss of the investee as a component of other comprehensive income. Dividends or other equity distributions in excess of the Company's cumulative equity in earnings of the investee are recorded as a reduction of the investment. Differences in the basis of the investments and the separate net asset values of the investees, if any, are amortized into net income over the remaining useful lives of the underlying assets and liabilities, except for the excess related to goodwill, if any.

The Company believes the equity method is an appropriate means for it to recognize increases or decreases measured by U.S. GAAP in the economic resources underlying the investments. Regular evaluation of these investments is appropriate to evaluate any potential need for impairment. The Company uses evidence of a loss in value to identify if an investment has an other than a temporary decline.

Variable Interest Entities

The Company determines whether it has relationships with entities defined as variable interest entities (VIEs) in accordance with ASC 810, Consolidation. Under this guidance, a VIE is consolidated by the variable interest holder that is determined to be the primary beneficiary.

An entity in which the Company holds a variable interest is a VIE if any of the following conditions exist: (a) the total equity investment at risk is not sufficient to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support, (b) as a group, the holders of equity investment at risk lack either the direct or indirect ability through voting rights or similar rights to make decisions about an entity's activities that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance or the obligation to absorb the expected losses or right to receive the expected residual returns, or (c) the voting rights of some investors are disproportionate to their obligation to absorb the expected losses of the entity, their rights to receive the expected residual returns of the entity, or both and substantially all of the entity's activities either involve or are conducted on behalf of an investor with disproportionately few voting rights.

The primary beneficiary is defined as the variable interest holder that is determined to have the controlling financial interest as a result of having both (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE and (b) the obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The Company determines whether an entity is a VIE at the inception of its variable interest in the entity and upon the occurrence of certain reconsideration events. The Company continually reassesses whether it is the primary beneficiary of VIEs in which it holds a variable interest.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using the standard cost method, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Materials from vendors are received and recorded as raw material. Once the raw materials are incorporated in the fabrication of the product, the related value of the component is recorded as work in progress or WIP. Direct and indirect labor and applicable overhead costs are also allocated and recorded to WIP inventory. Finished goods are comprised of completed products that are ready for customer shipment. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of inventory on hand for potential excess amounts over sales and forecasted demand. Excess and obsolete inventories identified, if any, are recorded as an inventory impairment charge to the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company's estimate of write downs for excess and obsolete inventory is based on a detailed analysis of on-hand inventory and purchase commitments in excess of forecasted demand. 


In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update, or ASU, No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to enhance the transparency and comparability of financial reporting related to leasing arrangements. The Company adopted the standard effective January 1, 2019.

At the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the unique facts and circumstances present. Operating lease liabilities and their corresponding right-of-use assets are recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected lease term. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable. As such, the Company utilizes its incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items such as initial direct costs paid or incentives received.

Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet. The Company recognizes the lease expense for such leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Lease expense is recognized over the expected term on a straight-line basis. Operating leases are recognized on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets, lease liabilities current and lease liabilities non-current. As a result, the Company no longer recognizes deferred rent on the balance sheet.

Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations.
The Company’s medical device segment (EksoHealth) revenue is primarily generated through the sale and rental of the Ekso GT and associated software (SmartAssist and VariableAssist), and sale of accessories, and support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care). Revenue from medical device product sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility for sales of the Ekso GT, software, and accessories. Ekso Care support and maintenance contracts extend coverage beyond the Company’s standard warranty agreements. The separately priced Ekso Care contracts range from 12 to 48 months. The Company receives payment at the inception of the contract and recognize revenue over the term of the agreement. Revenue from medical device leases is recognized over the lease term, typically over 12 months.

The Company’s industrial device segment (EksoWorks) revenue is generated by the sales of the upper body exoskeleton (EksoVest) and the support arm (EksoZeroG). Revenue from industrial device sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility.
Refer to Note 6 – Revenue Recognition for further information, including revenue disaggregated by source.
Going Concern
The Company assesses its ability to continue as a going concern at every interim and annual period in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 205-40. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash accounts in excess of federally insured limits. However, the Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which these deposits are held. The Company extends credit to customers in the normal course of business and performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable exist to the full extent of amounts presented in the condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company does not require collateral from its customers to secure accounts receivable.
Accounts receivable are derived from the sale of products shipped to and services performed for customers. Invoices are aged based on contractual terms with the customer. The Company reviews accounts receivable for collectability and records an allowance for credit losses, as needed. The Company has not experienced any material losses related to accounts receivable as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
Many of the sales contracts with customers outside of the U.S. are settled in a foreign currency. The Company does not enter into any foreign currency hedging agreements and is susceptible to gains and losses from foreign currency fluctuations. To date, the Company has not experienced significant gains or losses upon settling foreign currency denominated accounts receivable.
As of March 31, 2019, the Company had no customers with an accounts receivable balance totaling 10% or more of the Company’s total accounts receivable compared with one customer as of December 31, 2018 (19%).
In the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had one customer with sales of 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue (11%).
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 eliminated the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities are required to record an impairment charge based on the excess of the carrying amount over its fair value. This update will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the impact of adopting ASU 2017-04 to be material on its consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The standard modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820 by removing the requirement to disclose the reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy and the policy for timing of such transfers. The standard expands the disclosure requirements for Level 3 fair value measurement, primarily focused on changes in unrealized gains and losses included in other comprehensive income. The amendments in this Update will be effective for all the Company in the first quarter of 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of the amendments in this update will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02-Leases (ASC 842) and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2017-13, ASU 2018-10 and ASU 2018-11 (collectively, Topic 842) which superseded existing guidance on accounting for leases in ASC 840, Leases (ASC 840). Topic 842 requires the Company to recognize on its balance sheet a lease liability representing the present value of future lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the lessee's right to use, or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term for any operating lease with a term greater than one year. This standard is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2019. The Company used the modified retrospective transition method, under which we applied the standard to each lease that had commenced as of the beginning of January 1, 2019. In addition, the Company elected to apply the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which among other things, allowed the Company to carry forward the historical lease classification.

Upon adoption of this standard on January 1, 2019, the Company recorded right–of–use assets and corresponding lease liabilities of $1,454 and $1,498, respectively. As of March 31, 2019, the right–of–use assets and corresponding lease liabilities in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets were $1,365 and $1,412, respectively. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations or cash flows, nor did it have a material impact on the financial covenants set forth in the Company's long-term debt agreement. The Company has provided detailed disclosures as required by the new standard (Refer to Note 10, Lease Obligations).

In August 2018, the SEC published Release No. 33–10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, or DUSTR, which adopted amendments to certain disclosure requirements that have become redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded, in light of other SEC disclosure requirements, GAAP, or changes in the information environment. While most of the DUSTR amendments eliminate outdated or duplicative disclosure requirements, the final rule amends the interim financial statement requirements to include a reconciliation of changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit) in the notes or as a separate statement for each period for which a statement of comprehensive income (loss) is required to be filed. The new interim reconciliation of changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit) is included herein as a separate statement.