Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates

Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Notes to Financial Statements  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates


Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP").


All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. For the Company, these estimates include, but are not limited to, assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, revenue recognition, deferred revenue, the valuation of warrants and employee equity awards, future warranty costs, accounting for leases, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, valuation of inventory, realizability of deferred tax assets, and contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Foreign Currency


The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries and equity investments, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated from their respective functional currencies into U.S. dollars at the rates in effect at the balance sheet date and revenue and expense amounts are translated at average rates during the period, with resulting foreign currency translation adjustments recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income as a component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses from the re-measurement of balances denominated in currencies other than the entities' functional currencies, are recorded in other expense, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.


Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)


The Company's accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) consists of the accumulated net unrealized gains or losses on foreign currency translation adjustments. The change in accumulated other comprehensive income presented on the consolidated balance sheets for the year ended December 31, 2023, is reflected in the table below net of tax:



Accumulated Other




Income (Loss)


Balance as of December 31, 2021

  $ (17 )

Net unrealized gain on foreign currency translation


Balance as of December 31, 2022


Net unrealized loss on foreign currency translation

    (407 )

Balance as of December 31, 2023

  $ 156  


Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and accounts receivable. The Company has significant cash balances at financial institutions which throughout the year regularly exceed the federally insured limit of $250. Any loss incurred or a lack of access to such funds could have a significant adverse impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. The Company extends credit to customers in the normal course of business. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable exist to the full extent of amounts presented in the consolidated financial statements. The Company does not require collateral from its customers to secure accounts receivable.


Accounts receivable are derived from the sale of products shipped and services performed for customers primarily located in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Australia. Invoices are aged based on contractual terms with the customer. The Company reviews accounts receivable for collectability and provides an allowance for potential credit losses. The allowance for potential credit losses on trade receivables reflects the Company’s best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence. Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type, although terms generally include a requirement of payment within 30 to 90 days. The Company has not experienced material losses related to accounts receivable during the years ended  December 31, 2023 and 2022.


Many of the sales contracts with customers outside of the U.S. are settled in a foreign currency other than the U.S. dollar. The Company does not enter into any foreign currency hedging agreements and is susceptible to gains and losses from foreign currency fluctuations. To date, the Company has not experienced significant gains or losses upon settling contracts denominated in a foreign currency.


The Company had no customers with an accounts receivable balance totaling 10% or more of the Company's total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2023 and  December 31, 2022.


The Company had one customer with sales of 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (15% and 10%, respectively).




Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using the standard cost method, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Materials from vendors are received and recorded as raw materials. Once the raw materials are incorporated in the fabrication of the product, the related value of the component is recorded as work in progress ("WIP"). Direct and indirect labor and applicable overhead costs are also allocated and recorded to WIP inventory. Finished goods are comprised of completed products that are ready for customer shipment. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of inventory on hand for potential excess amounts over sales and forecasted demand. Excess and obsolete inventories identified, if any, are recorded as an inventory impairment charge within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company's estimate of write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory is based on a detailed analysis which includes on-hand inventory and purchase commitments in excess of forecasted demand. Subsequent disposals of inventories are recorded as a reduction of inventory.


Inventories consisted of the following:



December 31,






Raw materials

  $ 4,298     $ 3,837  

Work in progress

    290       487  

Finished goods

    462       863  


  $ 5,050     $ 5,187  




The Company records its leases in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 842, Leases. At the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the unique facts and circumstances present. Operating lease liabilities and their corresponding right-of-use assets are recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected lease term. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable. As such, the Company utilizes its incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items, such as initial direct costs paid or incentives received.


Lease expense is recognized over the expected lease term on a straight-line basis. Operating leases are recognized on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets, lease liabilities current and lease liabilities non-current.


Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet. The Company recognizes the lease expense for such leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.


Property and Equipment, net


Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally ranging from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the related term of the lease. The costs of repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred, while expenditures for refurbishments and improvements that significantly add to the productive capacity or extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized. 


The Company assesses the impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable from the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the Company’s use or eventual disposition. If estimates of future undiscounted net cash flows are insufficient to recover the carrying value of the assets, the Company will record an impairment loss in the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value. If the assets are determined to be recoverable, but the useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the Company will depreciate or amortize the net book value of the assets over the newly determined remaining useful lives. None of the Company’s property and equipment were impaired as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. No impairment loss has been recognized in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.




The Company records goodwill when the purchase price of an acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net tangible and identified intangible assets acquired. The Company performs an annual impairment assessment, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist, which includes evaluating qualitative and quantitative factors to assess the likelihood of an impairment of goodwill. Such indicators include, among others, material departures from projected sales volume, deteriorating gross margins, and uncertainties regarding continued commercialization as a result of changing business strategies.


The Company determined no impairment existed for the years ended  December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.


Intangible Assets


Other intangible assets include developed technology, acquired intellectual property, and customer relationships, in the case of finite-lived intangibles, and trade names in the case of indefinite-lived intangibles. Finite-lived intangibles are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. Indefinite lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually, or as deemed necessary if potential indicators of impairment exist.


The Company determined no impairment existed for the year ended  December 31, 2023  and  December 31, 2022.


Warrant Valuation


The Company generally accounts for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that it may need to settle the warrants in cash.


Where there is a possibility that the Company may have to settle warrants in cash, it estimates the fair value of the issued warrants as a liability at each reporting date and records changes in the estimated fair value as a non-cash gain or loss in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair values of these warrants have been determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model (the “Black-Scholes Model”) and the Binomial Lattice model (the “Lattice Model”). The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs, such as the expected volatility, expected term, exercise price, risk-free interest rate, and the value of the underlying security. The Lattice Model provides for assumptions regarding expected volatility, expected term, exercise price, risk-free interest rates, the value of the underlying security, and the probability of and likely timing of a specific event within the period to maturity. These values are subject to a significant degree of the Company’s judgment. The Company’s common stock price represents a significant input that affects the valuation of the warrants.


Going Concern


The Company assesses its ability to continue as a going concern in accordance with ASC 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements Going Concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.


Revenue Recognition


The Company records its revenue in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations. Revenue recognition is evaluated based on the following five steps: (i) identification of the contract with the customer; (ii) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determination of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognition of revenue when or as a performance obligation is satisfied.


For multiple-element arrangements, revenue is allocated to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. Standalone selling prices are determined based on observable prices at which the Company separately sells its products or services. If a standalone selling price is not directly observable, judgment is made to estimate the selling price based on market conditions and entity-specific factors including cost plus analyses, features and functionality of the product and/or services, the geography of the Company’s customers, and type of customer. Any discounts or other reductions to the transaction price are allocated proportionately to all performance obligations within the multiple-element arrangement. The Company periodically validates the stand-alone selling price for performance obligations by evaluating whether changes in the key assumptions used to determine the stand-alone selling prices will have a significant effect on the allocation of transaction price between multiple performance obligations.


The Company exercised judgement to determine that a product return reserve was not required as historical returns activity have not been material.


Research and Development


Research and development costs consist of costs incurred for internal research and development activities. These costs primarily include salaries and other personnel-related expenses, contractor fees, prototype materials, facility costs, supplies, and depreciation of equipment associated with the design and development of new products prior to the establishment of their technological feasibility. Such costs are expensed as incurred.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, income tax expense or benefit is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and for deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company's consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The Company accounts for any income tax contingencies in accordance with accounting guidance for income taxes. The measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on provisions of currently enacted tax laws. The effects of any future changes in tax laws or rates have not been considered.
For the preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements included herein, the Company estimates its income taxes and tax contingencies in each of the tax jurisdictions in which it operates prior to the completion and filing of its tax returns. This process involves estimating actual current tax expense together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items, such as deferred revenue, for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in net deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company must then assess the likelihood that the deferred tax assets will be realizable, and to the extent they believe that realizability is not likely, the Company must establish a valuation allowance. In assessing the need for any additional valuation allowance, the Company considers all the evidence available to it, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, legislative developments, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.


Stock-based Compensation


The Company measures stock-based compensation expense for stock options granted to employees and directors based on the estimated fair value of the award on the date of grant and recognizes the fair value on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards. The Company determines the fair value of stock options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Model, which is affected by the Company’s stock price and assumptions regarding a number of subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the Company’s stock price, volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors (expected term). Due to the lack of sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate expected term, the Company adopted the simplified method of estimating the expected term pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 14. On this basis, the Company estimated the expected term of options granted by taking the average of the vesting term and the contractual term of the option. 


The Company measures stock-based compensation expense for restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance stock units ("PSUs") made to employees and directors based on the Company’s closing stock price on the date of grant and recognizes the value on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards.


The Company records compensation expense for service-based awards on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award. For awards with performance-based conditions, at the point that it becomes probable that the performance conditions will be met, the Company records a cumulative catch-up of the expense from the grant date to the current date, and then amortizes the remainder of the expense over the remaining service period. Management evaluates when the achievement of a performance-based condition is probable based on the expected satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date. The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur.


The Company has, from time to time, modified the terms of its stock options to certain employees and directors. The Company accounts for the incremental increase in the fair value over the original award on the date of the modification as an expense for vested awards or over the remaining service (vesting) period for unvested awards. The incremental compensation cost is the excess of the fair value of the modified award on the date of modification over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification.



Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in 2023


In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04, ASU 2019-05 and ASU 2019-10, which amended the current approach to estimate credit losses on certain financial assets, including trade and other receivables. Generally, this amendment requires entities to establish a valuation allowance for the expected lifetime losses of these certain financial assets. Upon the initial recognition of such assets, which is based on, among other things, historical information, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. Subsequent changes in the valuation allowance are recorded in current earnings and reversal of previous losses are permitted. Previously, U.S. GAAP required entities to write down credit losses only when losses were probable and loss reversals were not permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 as of January 1, 2023, using the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 did not have a material impact on the Company's financial position or the results of operations.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 eliminates certain models that require separate accounting for embedded conversion features, in certain cases. Additionally, among other changes, the guidance eliminates certain of the conditions for equity classification for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The guidance also requires entities to use the if-converted method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and include the effect of share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares, except for certain liability-classified share-based payment awards. This guidance is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2024 and must be applied using either a modified or full retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the impact of adopting ASU 2020-06 to be material on its consolidated financial statements.